Saturday, February 22, 2020

Hostage Negotiations Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Hostage Negotiations - Research Paper Example The actual negotiation period may take hours or even days to bring the situation to a positive conclusion. Discussion of the hostage-takers, negotiators and techniques used are given in the following information. First of all there may be many circumstances involved in why a hostage situation takes place. Some examples include 1. A situation of a desperate mother or father who locks themselves in with their own child. 2. It could be a bank robber disturbed and having financial problems. 3. Or it may be a terrorist situation that has taken hostages in return for demands being met. In any hostage situation, however, there are differing circumstances. There may be more than one hostage, or there may be more than one hostage-taker, or the situation could be planned or just a last minute desperate attempt to have their demands met. In any of these situations it is the negotiator who must control the situation using his skills to bring the situation to a prompt conclusion and a positive ou tcome. The hostage-taker has little choice in the outcome once the situation escalates. He can either â€Å"kill hostages or release them, kill himself or be killed by a shoot out, negotiate a way out (which is seldom done), or give themselves up.† Most major incidents that law enforcement deal with involving hostages are less than 20 percent and most are resolved with no loss of life. It has been proven in critical situations that negotiation strategies produce a 95 percent success rate in concluding a hostage situation without fatalities of neither hostages nor hostage-takers. The hostage-taker’s role in the situation is to have his demands met by using people as a bargaining chip. So when the police arrive the first thing they do is to find out as much as possible about the hostage-taker and why he has taken a hostage or hostages. The hostage-taker may be emotionally or mentally disturbed. The specific reason for the hostage taking may be illogical to the negotiator but it may make perfect sense to the hostage-taker. In cases such as these the hostage is usually related to the hostage-taker and normally its some type of domestic dispute. In most cases, this is the type of situation that police officers face in hostage situations. In other situations innocent bystanders are used as â€Å"human shields† to protect the hostage-taker from the police. This type of situation is normally unplanned and just a panic reaction of a caught criminal situation. The most extreme hostage situations are terrorist situations, which are always planned. From the very beginning it is the plan of the hostage-takers to use the lives of the hostages to achieve their specific goals. The participants in these types of situations are usually radical political groups, terrorists, or other extreme activists. Another form of hostage crisis is kidnapping, but in this type of situation the hostage taker uses other means to communicate their demands. Therefore, a negot iator is not necessarily needed. Lt.. Schmidt of the Cheektowaga Police Department in Cheektowaga, NY says, regardless of the situation, basic technique is the same. â€Å"You work to build a rapport and encourage them to bring about a peaceful conclusion. The same techniques are

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Use of batteries as power sources Research Paper

Use of batteries as power sources - Research Paper Example The requirements for these batteries comprise high release rates, low insertion loss from components in series by means of the cells, high-precision measurements, superfluous security protection, and no upset by means of incredibly high ESD transients.If we analyzed then we come to know that Battery-pack requirements have gone through a main evolution in the history several years, and today's designs have considerable electronic content.Moreover, practically all Li-ion protector circuits for one- and two-cell applications have protector FETs in the low (unenthusiastic) surface of the battery. Plus key issues exacting to a low-side Li-ion protector circuit are converse. The transients shaped when the Li-ion protector opens throughout a brief short or when the battery is unplugged even as beneath load may exceed the voltage rating of semiconductors in the battery set. This theme describes a number of plan issues and suggests solutions to make your mind up or get better them. Resolution of these subjects requires attention to together the circuit design and the printed circuit board (PCB) explain.If we analyzed the Fig. 1 then we come to know that it is a block drawing of circuitry in a typical Li-ion battery set. It demonstrates an instance of a security protection circuit for the Li-ion cells and a gas gauge (capacity measuring device). The security circuitry includes a Li-ion protector that controls back-to-back FET switches. No doubt, these switches can be opened to defend the pack next to fault conditions such as in excess of voltage, beneath voltage, and over current. If we analyzed then we come to know that the figure also comprise a temperature responsive three-terminal fuse that will open due to long-drawn-out over present or over temperature, or it can be forced to open by superfluous protection circuitry in case there is a responsibility where the main protection circuitry fails to respond. As opening this fuse is a previous resort, as it will render the pack enduringly disabled. The gas-gauge circuitry events the charge and discharge present by measuring the voltage crossways a low-value sense resistor with low-offset dimension circuitry. Furthermore, the present measurement is incorporated to decide the alter in coulometric ability. In adding up, the gauge measures temperature plus voltage, assess gas-gauging algorithms to decide the obtainable capacity in the battery, and computes time-to-empty and additional values necessary by the host. The available capacity as well as additional measurements and computational outcome are communicated to the host over a sequential communication line. A diagram indication of obtainable ability can be displayed by the LEDs when make active by a push-button switch. Fig. 1. Block diagram of circuitry in a typical Li-ion battery pack. OPTIMIZING THE DESIGN FOR MEASUREMENT PRECISION Let's take a look upon measurement precision requires a precise measurement data gaining system and measurement sensor and also need a cautious board layout. Moreover, if the designer does not pay notice to all these items, the ensuing system performance may not transport the expected results. The sense resistor and how it is linked to the data gaining system are dangerous design decisions. The intelligence resistor may see changes in temperature that are much bigger than the ambient difference of the battery pack due to power debauchery in the resistor. Use of a low-temperature coefficient resistor will get better obtainable capacity and current-measurement precision. The effectual sense confrontation seen by the dimension circuitry may depend on how the printed circuit board (PCB) etch is linked to the sense resistor. If the intelligence re

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

The Riemann Hypothesis Essay Example for Free

The Riemann Hypothesis Essay The Riemann Zeta Function is defined by the following series: Here s is a complex number and the first obvious issue is to find the domain of this function, that is, the values of s where the function is actually defined. First of all, it is a well known result in calculus that, when s is real, the series is convergent for s1 (see [2]). For example, a simple application of the theory of Fourier series allows to prove that . For s=1, the series diverges. However, one can prove that the divergence is not too bad, in the sense that: In fact, we have the inequalities: Summing from 1 to , we find that and so which implies our claim. As a function of the real variable s,   is decreasing, as illustrated below.   for s real and 1 The situation is   more complicated when we consider the series as a function of a complex variable. Remember that a complex number is a sum , where   are real numbers (the real and the imaginary part of z, respectively) and , by definition. One usually writes   There is no ordering on the complex numbers, so the above arguments do not make sense in this setting.   We remind that the complex power   is defined by and Therefore, the power coincides with the usual function when s is real. It is not difficult to prove that the complex series is convergent if Re(s)1. In fact, it is absolutely convergent because where |z| denotes as usual, the absolute value: .   See [2] for the general criteria for convergence of   series of functions. Instead, it is a non-trivial task to prove that the Riemann Zeta Function can be extended far beyond on the complex plane: Theorem.   There exists a (unique) meromorphic function on the complex plane, that coincides with , when Re(s)1. We will denote this function again by We have to explain what ‘meromorphic’ means. This means that the function is defined, and holomorphic (i.e. it is differentiable as a complex function), on the complex plane, except for a countable set of isolated points, where the function has a ‘pole’. A complex function f(z) has a pole in w if the limit   exists and is finite for some integer m. For example,   has a pole in s=1. It is particularly interested to evaluate the Zeta Function at negative integers. One can prove the following: if k is a positive integer then where the Bernoulli numbers   are defined inductively by: Note that : the Bernoulli numbers with odd index greater than 1 are equal to zero. Moreover, the Bernoulli numbers are all rational. Of course, the number   is not obtained by replacing s=1-k in our original definition of the function, because the series would diverge; in fact, it would be more appropriate to write   where the superscript * denotes the meromorphic function whose values are defined, only when Re(s)1, by the series . There is a corresponding formula for the positive integers: 2 It is a remarkable fact that the values of the Riemann Zeta Function at negative integers are rational. Moreover, we have seen that   if n0 is even. The natural question arises: are there any other zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function? Riemann Hypothesis. Every zero of the Riemann Zeta Function must be either a negative even integer or a complex number of real part =  ½. It is hard to motivate this conjecture in an elementary setting, however the key point is that there exists a functional equation relating   and   (in fact, such a functional equation is exactly what is needed to extend   to the complex plane). The point   is the center of symmetry of the map It is also known that   has infinitely many zeros on the critical line Re(s)=1. Why is the Riemann Zeta function so important in mathematics? One reason is the strict connection with the distribution of prime numbers. For example, we have a celebrated product expansion: where the infinite product is extended to all the prime numbers and Re(s)1. So, in some sense, the Riemann Zeta function is an analytically defined object, encoding virtually all the information about the prime numbers. For example, the fact that   can be used to prove Dirichlet’s theorem on the existence of infinitely many prime numbers in arithmetic progression. The product expansion implies that   for every s such that Re(s)1. In fact, we have: and it is not difficult to check that this product cannot vanish. The following beautiful picture comes from Wikipedia. Bibliography [1] K. Ireland, M. Rosen, A Classical Introduction to Modern Number Theory, Springer, 2000 [2] W. Rudin, Principles of Mathematical Analysis, McGraw Hill, 1976 [3] W. Rudin, Real and Complex Analysis, , McGraw Hill, 1986

Monday, January 20, 2020

Essay --

1. On April 22, 2013 a jury trial was planned for commence as the result of Timelines, Inc. suing Facebook, Inc. for trademark infringement. Timelines, Inc. filed with the courts after noticing that Facebook, Inc. added the new â€Å"Timeline† feature to its member profiles. Facebook motioned for a summary judgment, but the U.S. District Court for Northern District of Illinois turned down Facebook’s motion for a summary judgment. The reason they denied this motion is because Facebook failed to prove that the word â€Å"timeline† was of fair use, and that the term â€Å"timelines† was just a generic term. A party that moves for a summary judgment is trying to save the time and expense of a full trial when the outcome is usually obvious. Since Timelines, Inc. has a registered trademark of the â€Å"timelines† phrase; the court affirmed that they were entitled to a presumption of validity. If I were a member of the jury, I would rule in favor of Timelines, Inc. because Facebook went against the trademark laws, and was not able to prove that the phrase â€Å"timeline† was of fair use. Fair use can be proved only if the defense can prove that such use was for a purpose other than that normally made of a trademark. The party that is being charged with trademark infringement may defeat proceedings ONLY if it can prove a valid exception of fair use. If companies did not trademark their mark, multiple companies would use similar marks causing consumer confusion about the origin of the defendant’s goods/services. As much as I love Facebook, I feel as though they took someone else’s creation, and used their power to make the concept legendary. Trademark infringement is a violation of the exclusive rights attached to a trademark without the authorization of the tra... ... the duplication of the copyrighted work must be outside the exceptions. The combination, the lyrics and associated melodies, intonations, and usage are too similar to the original. This violates the copyright trademark laws, and it is protectable material. The puzzle pieces match knowing that the composer’s advisors, John and Charles, listened to her song in 2008, critiqued it, and told her it was best as a duet. Copyright infringement is the act of violating any of a copyright owner’s exclusive rights that were granted by the Federal Copyright Act. The only exceptions to the copyright law are fair use, face-to-face instruction, and virtual instruction. These exceptions allow someone to use work without permission from the copyright holder, and potentially paying fees. If Bowen wins the case, she could potentially receive the actual dollar amount of the profits. Essay -- 1. On April 22, 2013 a jury trial was planned for commence as the result of Timelines, Inc. suing Facebook, Inc. for trademark infringement. Timelines, Inc. filed with the courts after noticing that Facebook, Inc. added the new â€Å"Timeline† feature to its member profiles. Facebook motioned for a summary judgment, but the U.S. District Court for Northern District of Illinois turned down Facebook’s motion for a summary judgment. The reason they denied this motion is because Facebook failed to prove that the word â€Å"timeline† was of fair use, and that the term â€Å"timelines† was just a generic term. A party that moves for a summary judgment is trying to save the time and expense of a full trial when the outcome is usually obvious. Since Timelines, Inc. has a registered trademark of the â€Å"timelines† phrase; the court affirmed that they were entitled to a presumption of validity. If I were a member of the jury, I would rule in favor of Timelines, Inc. because Facebook went against the trademark laws, and was not able to prove that the phrase â€Å"timeline† was of fair use. Fair use can be proved only if the defense can prove that such use was for a purpose other than that normally made of a trademark. The party that is being charged with trademark infringement may defeat proceedings ONLY if it can prove a valid exception of fair use. If companies did not trademark their mark, multiple companies would use similar marks causing consumer confusion about the origin of the defendant’s goods/services. As much as I love Facebook, I feel as though they took someone else’s creation, and used their power to make the concept legendary. Trademark infringement is a violation of the exclusive rights attached to a trademark without the authorization of the tra... ... the duplication of the copyrighted work must be outside the exceptions. The combination, the lyrics and associated melodies, intonations, and usage are too similar to the original. This violates the copyright trademark laws, and it is protectable material. The puzzle pieces match knowing that the composer’s advisors, John and Charles, listened to her song in 2008, critiqued it, and told her it was best as a duet. Copyright infringement is the act of violating any of a copyright owner’s exclusive rights that were granted by the Federal Copyright Act. The only exceptions to the copyright law are fair use, face-to-face instruction, and virtual instruction. These exceptions allow someone to use work without permission from the copyright holder, and potentially paying fees. If Bowen wins the case, she could potentially receive the actual dollar amount of the profits.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Native Americans in the United States and Hardy Individualism Essay

Prompt: Although the development of the Trans-Mississippi West is popularly associated with hardy individualism, it was in fact largely dependent on the federal government. Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to western economic activities in the 19th century. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, the idea of the far west captivated many. The chance to begin life anew attracted thousands of individuals and families alike to move out west and escape their current life, which was usually full of poverty and for some, full of discrimination. As the west expanded and grew into an important part of the United States, westerners found it somewhat difficult to survive with important resources going scarce. Although the development of the Trans-Mississippi west is mainly associated with hardy individualism, the west? s development as a whole was largely the result of the aid of the federal government by constructing railroads, promoting and protecting the land, and removing the Indian tribes. Railroads were an integral part of the west; without them the West would not be successful. The distance of the west from the rest of the country was large and the only way to reach the west was through a long, tiresome journey by wagon. The Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 paved the way for the expansion of the railroads. The Act gave companies land to build railroads. The faster the company built the railroad, the faster they could get more land, which they usually sold for profit later on. The construction of the railroad benefitted many who were not living in the west, namely Chinese immigrants. With thousands of workers, railroad companies had to ensure their safety to prevent being sued and frowned upon by the public. To prevent that, railroad companies provided many necessities for their workers like shelter.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Cyber Threat, Its Scope And Its Impact On National Security

Cyberspace which is an offshoot for the development of computer and digital communication technologies, has in recent decades become part and parcel of our daily lives. It has become an ideal source for cyber criminals to remain active while preying on victims. Higher the number of cyberspace users’, higher is the opportunities for exploitation. So it is the need of the hour to protect our computers, networks, digital applications and our data from unintended or unauthorized source, change or destruction. This paper proposes a policy directed examination on cyber threat, its scope and its impact on national security. It includes a profile of cooperation among criminals, terrorists and hostile organizations and discusses future of cybercrime in 2020. In recent years, â€Å"Information warfare† a new way of terrorism has become the major concern for information security specialists; terrorists might tamper with computers and electronic devices to commit secured information based threats to nations, to businesses and to individuals. INTRODUCTION In a world where information and communications technology (ICT) that provides the mode so people can work with each other electronically in a digital form over large distances, cyber threats and crimes are of great concern. Computerized technologies are implemented to improve and enhance the efficiency of creative and working processes in every facet of life and the world of cybercrime is no exception. Cybercrime is an illegal activityShow MoreRelatedCyber Threat, Its Scope And Its Impact On National Security2043 Words   |  9 Pageslives. It has become an ideal source for cyber criminals to remain active while preying on victims. 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So it is the need of the hour to protect our computers, networks, digital applications and our data from unintended or unauthorized source, change or destruction. This paper proposes a policy directed examination on cyber threat, its scope and its impact on national security. It includes a profile of cooperation among criminals, terrorists and hostile organizations and discusses future of cybercrime in 2020. In recent years, â€Å"Information warfare† a new way of terrorism has become the major concern for information security specialists; terrorists might tamper with computers and electronic devices to commit secured information based threats to nations, to businesses and to individuals. INTRODUCTION In a world where information and communications technology (ICT) that provides the mode so people can work with each other electronically in a digital form over large distances, cyber threats and crimes are of great concern. 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Friday, December 27, 2019

New Technology Within Medicine And Its Effects On The...

An increase in new technology within medicine is often thought to be advancement within society, because it increases the overall health of a population. Human innovations like full-body imaging through Magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, minimally invasive surgeries through the use of a robot called the Da Vinci, and the development of antibiotic prescriptions has increased life expectancies and assisted medical professionals to properly diagnose and treat a patient. However, these inventions do not come without consequence. For example, though antibiotics have saved millions of lives, it has also allowed the development of â€Å"super bugs†. These new bacteria have evolved to become stronger and more fit so they can evade the antibiotic, killing a great amount of individuals and becoming the next threat in medicine. Nevertheless, most professionals agree that antibiotics are still crucial to saving lives from bacterial infections and despite the negative side effects, this tr eatment has prolonged life. Therefore, it can be determined that the advantages of using antibiotics for treatment, in spite of not knowing the consequences when antibiotics were first used, outweigh the disadvantages (Aminov, Rustam I., 2010). 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With the creation and implementation of a national health care infrastructure related to the electronic health care record system among providers, a revision of the current lawRead MoreHealth Care Issues in the United States1242 Words   |  5 Pages#1 – Health Care Issues in the United States July 17, 2011 Because the United States spends the most on a health care system, one would think that most people in the U.S. would be healthy. This is not the case. Surprisingly, the United States does not have a particularly high life expectancy rate. Within this paper I will discuss heath issues in the United States including how heath effects behavior, economics, and social structure. I will also include key stages of medical technology developmentRead MoreEvaluation of Genetically Modified Foods Essay example684 Words   |  3 Pagesof genetics. Many recognised that this new knowledge had the potential to revolutionise food production, creating huge benefits for the world. 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NursesRead MoreRoot Cause Analysis And Rca1597 Words   |  7 Pagestool used both reactively, to investigate an adverse event that already has occurred, and proactively, to analyze and improve processes and systems before they break down. Roost cause analysis helps dissolve the problem, not just the symptoms. In health care, it is important to analyze the root caus e because: (1) deficiencies and weaknesses in the system can lead to human errors (2) evidence shows that in organizations with high trust the systematic errors can reveal the deficient system flaws (3)Read MoreDomestic Abuse And Its Effects On People s Health923 Words   |  4 Pagesencounters exposed me to the harsh realities of an underdeveloped society and the effect they had on people s health. I started seeing life in a new light, with a broader perspective and lesser complaints. It was my thirst for knowledge and a quest for adventure that led me to work as a Medical Officer in a rural hospital for 2 years. The hospital was a referral center for three neighboring districts serving a population of about 600,000. We were a group of young doctors, and our job came with responsibilitiesRead MoreIntegrating Traditional Medicine with Western Medicine992 Words   |  4 Pagestraditional and modern systems in the Nigerian health care delivery. Research Question: To what extent, if any, has traditional medicine in comparison to Bio-Medical practice, been incorporated to the health care delivery systems in Nigeria and how much promotion is given to the significance and efficacy of the practice of traditional medicine in curing same illness? Abstract: The practice of traditional medicine among the people of Nigeria in the Western regionRead MoreVeterans Swot Analysis1344 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"operates one of the largest health care delivery systems in the nation, with 168 medical centers and more than 1,000 outpatient facilities organized into regional networks† (GAO, 2017). The VA employs nearly 350,000 people at its facilities and serves approximately 9 million veterans each year (VA, 2017). SWOT ANALYSIS GRID STRENGTHS: (Internal) †¢ Employee training/education †¢ Increased staffing †¢ Increased budget †¢ Advanced medicine/research †¢ Advanced Technologies †¢ Continuously search for innovativeRead MoreMalthus s Theory Of The Demographic Transition Theory1279 Words   |  6 Pages economists, and environmentalist’s struggle to find a solution to our â€Å"growing† problem. One theory that explains this population change is the demographic transition theory. This theory, defined as a thesis that links population patterns to a society’s level of technological development (Macionis, 2013 p. 636), suggests that the key to population control lies in technology. Demographic transition theory is a general description of the mortality, fertility and growth rates as societies move fromRead MoreDemographic Transition Model Essay1368 Words   |  6 Pagesthe fact of the rise of new technology and the change of living habits such as sanitation and a healthier way of living. The change that had occurred had brought forth global observation; the reason being is that life expectancy was becoming longer. Within this change, a graph was created called the Demographic Transition Model. This graph recorded and explained the observation of the numbers of death and birth rates throughout the years. The demographic transition was new to explain the change from