Thursday, August 27, 2020
The Tragic Decline of BlackBerry - Essay Example This combined with the advanced plan that it reliably implants with the minor subtleties that isolates it from the rest. Yet, the unsparing rivalry in its field has made BlackBerry practically edgy in its endeavors to remove a portion of the suitability of the market against other particular and settled partners. In its mission to take a cut and contend with different monsters, for example, Apple, Sony Ericsson, Google and Microsoft, its producer Research in Motion is continually in its feet testing the market and searching for a strong specialty that goes past its agreeable cell phone circle. It has attempted into different undertakings that have missed the mark concerning the desires and in general intrigue. The arrival of the BlackBerry Playbook that professed to topple down AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ipad was an epic disappointment the clients and geeks excused the item similar to a significant let down. Harry McCracken in his article Ã¢â¬Å"BlackBerry: Vision NeededÃ¢â¬ considered it as being massively frustrating and this could be ascribed to what Ben Bajarin in Ã¢â¬Å"The Tragic Decline of BlackBerryÃ¢â¬ alludes to as lost client intrigue. These two articles perceive the issues that BlackBerry is confronting. There must be a more profound investigate pondering first what items will relate to BlackBerry rather than just discharging new ones for piece of the overall industry. McCracken accidentally said that it is a decent move for the organization not to report any new item at DevCon in San Francisco as opposed to what it did it 2010 that constructed the publicity for Playbook. Rather, it is concentrating on the new working framework called BBX. Bajarin is in the same spot by saying that RIMÃ¢â¬â¢s endeavor to participate in all the style neglects to intrigue the real clients who utilize the item. These sorts of introduction are everything except the character of Steve Jobs and the trait of Apple. BlackBerry need not get in on the blend and rather stick to wh at it excels at.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Kinship in Harry Potter Kinship is a top to bottom relationship blending trust, steadfastness and support. It is the mix of getting, sympathy and closeness. However, nobody can frame a companionship until he/she understands that the premise of being companions is addressing the requirements of the other individual. One must be a companion so as to have one (Mugglenet). Companionship and its primary segments: devotion trust, support, and comparable qualities are well indeed accentuated in Harry Potter and The SorcererÃ¢â¬â¢s Stone. Trust and reliability go connected at the hip for companions. Companions are trusted with privileged insights, both huge and little, since old buddies never break a certainty. Old buddies are always faithful. This is the situation of Hagrid with Professor Dumbledore. Hagrid is always faithful to Dumbledore in spite of their disparities on the grounds that the educator has trusted Hagrid with significant endeavors. A significant vote of trust and obligation that companions merit so as to feel increased in value. A comparative case of unwaveringness is picture when Harry went to bat for his new companion Ron Weasley when Draco Malfoy affront...
Friday, August 21, 2020
Five Tips to Help Save Money as a Student Five Tips to Help Save Money as a Student By Shannon Clark 'Saving' and 'students' are two words that donât generally make their way into the same sentence, but weâre here to prove to you that it is possible to save your money at uni. Or, at the very least, some of it. If youâre used to having to scrimp and scrape, then weâve got a few tips that should help you to put aside some extra cash this term. Here are our top five tips for saving money as a student: Pre-drink and avoid paying entry fees One thing that is generally synonymous with university is the drinking lifestyle. While not every student enjoys going out for a drink every weekend, a vast majority do, and it can get very costly, very quickly. There are a few things you can do to keep your costs on your night out as low as possible: Pre-drink before you leave home to save needing to fork out for overpriced drinks in the club. Arrive before you have to pay an entry fee or head out to somewhere that you donât have to pay to get in to. Alternatively, purchase your ticket to the club earlier as it can often be cheaper than paying on the door. Find out when local shops discount their food At the end of every day, food produce shops will discount any food that is nearing its sell-by date. Ask a store assistant what time they do that and then turn up just before so that you can grab the best deals. It might not seem like much at the time but if you can get a couple of pounds off your food shop each week, it all adds up at the end of the year. Live within walking distance of uni Most student houses are located fairly close to the uni but, if possible, try to find a place to live that is within walking distance to campus. Not only will it motivate you to actually turn up to your lectures, it will also save you having to pay out for a bus card or taxis every time you have to venture onto campus. Make the most of student discounts One of the huge benefits of being a student is that you have access to a huge number of discounts. Before paying in any shop, check with the cashier if they offer a student discount and keep your eye out for local discount cards that you can get your hands on as a student, such as railcards. And if you havenât already, sign up for an International Student Identity Card (ISIC), which allows you to prove your student status around the world and access thousands of discounts. Get savvy with your cooking If you get along with your housemates, then cooking as a group can be a great way to save money. If that isnât an option for you, then cook in bulk for yourself and freeze the leftovers. By planning your meals ahead, and cooking in bulk youâll find that your food (and therefore your money) goes a lot further each week. These tips wonât leave you rolling in money, but they should help to keep your bank balance looking a little bit healthier each month! Shannon Clark writes for Inspiring Interns, which specializes in sourcing candidates for internships and graduate jobs. You can find more of her work at www.shannonlclark.com and www.sweetserendipityblog.co.uk.
Monday, May 25, 2020
Introduction Youth violence is defined as violent behaviour that begins early in life and continues throughout subsequent stages of life. Youth violence may include physical and emotional harm, and minor crimes, escalating to murder (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013). Youth are recognized as being between the ages of twelve and twenty-four however, teens are the most affected by violence than any other group of youths as they are habitually perceived as the most violent age group (Goodwin, 1998, pg. 7). Youth violence has a past that aids in explaining acts of youth violence today. There are also numerous risk factors that may result in violent adolescents and additionally, there are several effects that violent youth have on societies. Youth violence is preventable. There are many methods to help prevent youth violence and its effects. There are also many facts and actions involving youth violence that may be a source of conflicting opinions on the matter. Youth viol ence is not merely a stage in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, it continues on to distress other fragments of society. History/ Background CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s history of violence has influenced the actions of youth we see today. The first Canadian youth gang documented in history was discovered prior to World War II. However, gangs observed in the past lacked a criminal component, contrasting what is seen in current youth gangs (Tunstall, 2009, pg 1). Youth violence in the United States was more noticeable and violent thanShow MoreRelatedThe Violence Of The Youth1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespeople having any idea. With an uninformed youth comes either no voting, or voting based solely on what they see on the media. Ã¢â¬Å"Youth believe that government and elections are not relevant to things they care aboutÃ¢â¬ (Child Trend Database). The media is where most millennials get all of their incorrect information from. In this day and age, it is harder to retain correct information without bias. With that being said, it is of the uttermost importance that the youth start doing their research and becomeRead M oreThe Effects Of Violence On Youth Violence Essay959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction: Violence is everywhere and due to this notion people find ways to accept it. Violence is part of the national mythology. Meaning violence is a social construction. Violent acts cannot be wholly understood unless we examine them as but one Ã¢â¬Å"one link in the chain of a long process of eventsÃ¢â¬ (Schmidt SchrÃ ¶der 2001, 7). Violence and the responses to it are socially constructed, they are phenomena viewed and interpreted in many different ways. For example, individuals become a productRead MoreAdolescent Violence And Youth Violence2265 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAdolescent violence has turned into an expanding issue in the U.S. youth violence and young people raised in the 1990s and has stayed high. Youth are the in all probability gathering to be casualties or culprits of high school violence, however the after effects of teenager violence influence everybody. Youth brutality insights d emonstrate this is a significant issue: A normal of 15 youngsters are killed every day in the U.S., and more than 80 percent of those are killed with firearms (Khey, 2008)Read MoreEffects Of Youth Violence781 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesaffect the population, youth violence is one of many issues. Youth violence is a behavior in which serious consequences and is now one of the primary public health issues of our period. Youth violence has affected not just the offenders but also their families and the community. Absence of positive role models, violence in families, victims due to violence, poverty and living in a community where crime is committed all contribute to youth violence. Youth Violence Youth violence refers to harmful behaviorsRead MoreSolutions For The Youth Violence1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSolutions to Our Youth Violence Gang and youth violence has become a seemingly unfixable issue in countries around the globe. Zooming in on America, the U.S government has made efforts to keep gang violence under control through the try and failed method of mass imprisonment and also placing more policemen in affected neighborhoods to patrol the streets. Not only did the government help expand gang networks in prisons by using these tactics, but these Ã¢â¬Å"solutionsÃ¢â¬ also made the youth living in harshRead More Youth Violence Essay707 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesYouth Violence Violence is a learned behavior. Children often experience violence for the first time in their lives in their homes or in the community. This first taste of violence may include their parents, family members or their friends. Studies have shown that children who witness violent acts, either as a victim or as a victimizer, are more likely to grow up to become involved in violence. During our second weekend class, we talked specifically about violence and youth. For manyRead More Youth Violence Essay1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Youth Violence Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Youth violence is an escalating problem in American society today. There are many different factors that can be blamed for this problem. During the last decade of the twentieth century people began searching for answers to this dilemma which is haunting America. Many tragic school shootings have taken place within the last decade that have gained the attention of the public. As of now, no one can give the right answer to the problem or the reason that it happens because thereRead More Youth Violence Essay597 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Youth Violence nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Ever since the terrible tragedy at Columbine High School, there has been a numerous list of recent school shootings in America. Youth violence is a major issue in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Many people dread what causes adolescents to be so violent, committing horrible crimes.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;There are many wonders that go around about why young adolescents commit such violent crimes. These questions vary from why kidsRead MoreYouth Violence Essay1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFear of youth violence is a constant concern by millions of people all over the world. Kids seem to take up more and more space of crimes that are usually committed by adults over the age of 18. Statistics confirm that more horrendous crimes are being committed by increasingly younger children (Levine 27). These crimes committed by youths are caused by many different reasons: Poverty, neighborhoods, schools, parents, and TV, are the main concerns. But what is in most peoples minds is what weRead MoreViolence Among Youth3553 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pagesgreat nation. In India, 480 million are less than 19 years old. India has 20% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s children.  The recent years have seen an unprecedented increase in youth violence, often lethal violence, all around the nation. Anecdotal evidence of increase in violence by young people against women and old people, of road rage, of violence in schools, and other violent actions to get whatever they want is alarming. This epidemic, as many social analysts called it, caused serious concern to both parents
Thursday, May 14, 2020
ABSRACT Previous observational and interventional studies have shown that regular physical exercise may be associated with reduced symptoms of depressions. The degree to which exercise training may reduce depression symptoms in elderly patient with extreme cases of depression disorders hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been evaluated though. However, it has been found that patients who receive antidepressant would respond faster at the initial stages when compared to those who could take both antidepressants and training. Cases of less severe depression, respond more rapidly through exercise than those with more severe depression symptom. It has been noted that exercise would bring the same results as depressants if they were to be used to manage depression. THESIS STATEMENT Can exercise be used as alternative to pharmacological medication and therapy in the treatment of depression disorders? INTRODUCTION Depression is a common and major reason for morbidity and mortality across the globe. Even though effective pharmacological intervention is available, most depression cases remain inadequately managed, with women being almost twice as likely as their male counterpartÃ¢â¬â¢s to develop a disorder associated with depression. We know that lack of physical exercise increases the vulnerability to depression and that physical activity whether work related, exercise or recreation, significantly reduces the risk of developing a depressive disorder. This cuts across the board for people of all races and socioeconomic levels but for those that may not respond to conventional therapeutic intervention the question remains, can exercise be an effective alternative to conventional therapy and medication in relieving depression? In some cases, the effectiveness of antidepressants to extreme cases of depression has been found to be poor. Studies have shown that between 20 percent and 59 percent of cases in primary care stop taking antidepressants within the first three weeks of the drugs prescription. Effectiveness of exercise as an antidepressant has been the subject of research for several decades and literature on the subject is still growing .In the past decade, exercise has been the most preferred intervention mechanism for cases of depression. In the U.K for instance, primary care for depression cases Ã Ã seems to have become very popular with exercise, with many organizations and health care institutions recommending regular exercise for most depression cases. Several plausible mechanisms on how exercise acts as an antidepressant have been put forward. Taking regular exercise is taken as a virtue in developed countries. A depression patient who exercises regularly may get a positive response from other people and an increased sense of self-worth. Exercise may act as a diversion from negative thinking and the masterly of a new art may be important. Physical activity may bring physiological effects such as in endorphin and monoamine. Research on the effectiveness of exercise as an antidepressant has yielded positive results as explained below. According to Medicine for Science in Sports and Exercise journal, depression is a common problem in the present society. It is expensive to the healthcare system, and if available, alternative and effective low cost therapies, which do not have negative side effects, should be applied in the treatment program. Research shows that there is a positive relationship between exercise and decreased depression cases. This research shows that the antidepressant effect of exercise commences as early as the first session of exercise program and the effects go on beyond the end of session of exercise. These effects are consistent across age, gender, exercise group, body size and level of depression being managed (Kelly, Tran, 1995) Exercise has major antidepressant effects when training is longer than 9 weeks and involves more sessionÃ¢â¬â¢s .Exercise for longer sessions, higher intensity and when practiced for a greater number of days across a week had greater antidepressant effects. Exercise has been found to reduce depression more than relaxation, engaging in enjoyable activities and produced same effect as psychotherapy. Exercises combined with drug therapy produce the most desirable effects, though the effects are not far from those produced by exercise alone. Besides the treatment of depression, exercise is recommended because it has several additional health benefits. Cases of hypertension, diabetes and other ailments are recommended to make exercise a regular lifestyle. It is also useful in the management of body weight, shape and other social and physiological aspects of human health. Mental Health Journal research shows that there is growing body of work demonstrating that exercise promotes wellness and mental health. Short workouts for instance, could help decrease sadness, tension and anger along with improving resistance to diseases in healthy people. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be sickly from a clinical or diagnosed mental illness to get substantial mental health benefit from exercise and fitness .Many people do physical exercise to boost confidence along with the reduction of anxiety and stress all of which contribute to psychological health and well being. As a result, exercise can be viewed as preventative or wellness activity that may help prevent physical and emotional ailments (Jenifer, 2000) The bodysÃ¢â¬â¢ natural release of endorphin is seen as the reason for the feeling of well being that is generated after and during exercise. The chemicals which are released by the brain are the bodiesÃ¢â¬â¢ natural painkillers and can result to increased feeling of happiness. When you engage in physical exercise the mind will releases endorphin which will result to mental wellbeing reducing depression. According to British Medical Journal, wellness is a holistic concept and includes physical and mental components. It involves the establishment of the emotional and physical needs and the lifestyles that are desirable in the achievement of those particular needs. For decades, advantages of physical exercise for many psychological conditions have been reported. Health psychologists have advocated for the establishment and maintenance of exercise habit as apart of mental and physical health. A positive correlation between physical exercise and mental health variable has been reported. Exercise has been found to have significant effects on stress, depression, anxiety and moods. There is always a major reduction of stress rating among those who participate in physical exercise as opposed to those who are inactive. When a patient of major depression disorder is subjected to regular physical exercise the mind is stimulated to release endorphin which in return reduces the depression disorder. According to the British Medical Journal, patients with severe or major depression disorders have been found to demonstrate very positive results when they were subject to regular physical program as compared to antidepressants (Debbie. A.L, 2000) .When offered both physical exercise and antidepressants patients where found to produce similar results. Deeper methods of research have been employed in the study of the effectiveness of exercise as an antidepressant. Patients who were put on a watch program were found to demonstrate a very positive relationship towards reduction of depression. Comparing the three articles, the major journal has indicated that there is a positive relationship between physical exercise and reduction of depression disorders, indicating that exercise can be used as an effective antidepressant. The two other articles have demonstrated the same result, that there exists a positive correlation between physical practice and reduction of depression disorders. Studies from both journals have demonstrated that exercise can take the place of antidepressant effectively. They have depicted reduced stress, anxiety and boosting the morale of the patients. The three documents therefore have been found to support each other. CONCLUSION Exercise is an effective antidepressant which can be employed successfully in the management of major depression disorders affecting the world today. Many Illnesses in the present society are either linked to poor diet or lack of enough physical exercise and although depression may result from uncontrollable factors like the loss of a loved one, exercise has been proved to work very effectively in the alleviation of depression. Production of endorphin by the brain during exercise relaxes the individual and even makes them forget or recover from the particular incident. Secondly, exercise sessions are very engaging and the patient unknowingly passes time in a very relaxed way and this helps in the reduction of depression disorders. The above three articles have clearly brought out this issue. This article is quite helpful in the management of depression in a very effective and less costly manner. References Kelley, G., Tran, Z.V. (1995). Aerobic exercise and normotensive adults: A meta-analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 27(10), 1371Ã¢â¬â1377. Jenifer, C.P. (2000). Mental health benefits of exercise. Mental Health Journal. Debbie, A.L.(2001) . The effectiveness of exercise as an intervention in the management of depression. British Medical Journal.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Chinas Economic Growth Due to Recent Foreign Policies Recent Chinese economic policies have shot the country into the world economy at full speed. As testimony of this, Chinas gross domestic product has risen to seventh in the world, and its economy is growing at over nine percent per year (econ-gen 1). Starting in 1979, the Chinese have implemented numerous economic and political tactics to open the Chinese marketplace to the rest of the world. Just a few areas Chinas government is addressing are agricultural technology, the medical market, and infrastructures, like telecommunications, transportation and the construction industry. Chinese reform measures even anticipated the rush of foreign investment by opening newlyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Even after accounting for all the economic benefits recognized by the world, the Chinese still come out as the country with the most gains. However, there are more motives behind Chinas market reforms than just purely economic. On the political front, China is fast becoming an integral part of international organizations. The Chinese government is making a conscious effort to reenter GATT (the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), realizing the importance of creating a favorable trading status among foreign nations. Slowing this progress, the 124 nation strong trade bloc has requested that numerous conditions must be met by China before the nation can become a member of GATT once again. Several of these provisions are the elimination of import prohibitions, restrictive licensing requirements and other controls or restrictions; lifting of all restrictions on access to foreign exchange and full convertibility of the Chinese currency (china-tr. 2). Other important key themes behind Chinas Open-Door policies are economic and technological cooperation with the West (china-tr 1) and that Chinas government no longer supports Third World revolution. Instead, China realizes that cooperation with developing countries would be far more practical. Although Chinese foreign policy is aimed at opening the nations entire economy to the world, it neglects the agricultural market almost entirely, with the exceptionShow MoreRelatedThe Advantages and Disadvantages of Chinas Current Foreign Investment Environment1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe advantages and disadvantages of Chinas current foreign investment environment Content Introduction and Backgrounds 3 Advantage: Good economic environment 3 Advantage: Stable political environment 4 Advantage: Acceptable infrastructure 5 Advantage: Abundant labor 5 Disadvantage: The laws of the market economy system are not perfect 6 Disadvantage: Low government efficiency 7 Disadvantage: The low efficiency of the financial sector 7 Disadvantage: The investment environmentRead MoreÃ¯ » ¿Discuss the impact of globalisation on China, with reference to economic development and environmental consequences1356 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswith reference to economic development and environmental consequences Globalisation, is the process of increasing integration among different countries, resulting in the establishment of a single world market. Globalisation has been accelerated in the last 50 years due to the relative stabilisation of international relations, development of international institutions that have assisted in the management of globalisation, technological developments and changes in domestic policy. China has been heavilyRead More The Impact of Chinas Modern Foreign Policies on Economic Growth1229 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImpact of Chinas Modern Foreign Policies on Economic Growth Recent Chinese economic policies have shot the country into the world economy at full speed. As testimony of this, Chinas gross domestic product has risen to seventh in the world, and its economy is growing at over nine percent per year (econ-gen 1). Starting in 1979, the Chinese have implemented numerous economic and political tactics to open the Chinese marketplace to the rest of the world. Just a few areas Chinas governmentRead MoreThe Impact Of Development Strategies On Economic Growth And The Quality Of Life For An Economy Other Than Australia1159 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageson the economic growth and the quality of life for an economy other than Australia. (20 marks) Globalisation, is the process of increasing integration between different countries and economies resulting in the establishment of a single world market and the increased impact of international influences on all aspects of life and economic activity. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s global integration has assisted their impressive economic performance and the associated improvements in living standards through economic componentsRead MoreThe Case Of China s Credit Policy1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreality and its abstractions. Seldom do we find that a model aimed at capturing a portion of reality has provided both accurate and consistent results. Such a friction between reality and a proposed model of it can also be found in the case of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s credit policy. The PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Bank of China (PBoC) fixed the exchange rate of the yuan to the US dollar in the middle of the 1990s. In spite of the currency turmoil and depreciation during the Asian crisis, the Yuan Renminbi (RMB) was held at 8.28 to a dollarRead MoreE Manufacturing Group, An Electrical Appliance Company1162 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages4.1 Introduction This chapter summarizes the study carried out in E Manufacturing group, an electrical appliance company in China. It starts with a brief introduction of the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s background information and an overview of the recent development of China. This study then proceeds to discuss the implementation of BSC in the case E Manufacturing. Next, it explores the gap of how the BSC differ from the expectation with the actual practices. Last but not the least, this study highlights the theoreticalRead MoreChina Rising Of China And China1505 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesonly superpower. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s growth is too rapid and massive that other nations have limited or no opportunity to compete with. In the other hand, others argue that confits between two nations are avoidable. For example, economic exchange between the United States and China increased dramatically after the 1970s. The economic interdependence lowers the intension for China to create clashes with the United States. In addition, Ch inaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Peaceful RiseÃ¢â¬ policy suggest that the economic and military developmentRead MoreEconomic Analysis On China s Economy1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesII. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS I. Introduction: Close to four decades ago, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was under centrally-controlled, stagnant and isolated from the global economy. Then everything changed after 1979 when the foreign trade investment and free market reform was implemented. Not long after it was implement ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s become the world s fastest growing economy and now the largest economy in the world surpassing even United States. Today, China is focusing on a more sustainable growth pattern and implementingRead MoreEconomic Transition of China1069 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof Mao Zedong in 1976, it became apparent to many of Chinas leaders that Economic reform was necessary. By 1978 Chinese leaders were searching for a solution to serious economic problems produced by Hua Guofeng, the man who had succeeded Mao Zedong as CCP leader after Maos death (Shirk 35). As Susan L. Shirk describes the situation in The Political Logic of Economic Reform in China, restoring the CCPs prestige required improving economic performance a nd raising living standards. After the communistRead MoreEconomic Growth Of China And Its Effect On The Environment1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTitle: Economic growth in china and its effect on the environment in china. Abstract: Economic development is very critical for better future of any country and its residence but for one to gain something thing they must lose something. This has been the case with chinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and the environment. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s growing manufacturing sector and increase in consumption has taken the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy to new heights. Today china is one of the largest economic powerhouse in world, but at what cost. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Victor McKusick of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine,who is considered the father of Medical Genetics. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare and disabling genetic condition of congenital skeletal malformation and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO), is the most catastrophic disorder of (HO) in humans. FOP causes immobility through progressive metamorphosis of skeletal muscle and soft connective tissue into a second skeleton of heterotopic bone. FOP is extremely rare with a worldwide prevalence of approximately one in a two million. There appears to be no ethnic, racial, gender or geographic predisposition. When observed, genetic transmission is autosomal dominant and can be inherited from either mother or father. Clinical features that define FOP patients are malformation of the great toes; and progressive HO in specific spatial patterns. There are two different type of FOP atypical and classic. FOP patients appear normal at the time of birth except for the characteristics malformation of the great toes which are present in all affected patients. We will write a custom essay sample on Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page During the first decade of life, children with FOP develop painful and highly inflammatory soft tissue swellings (or flare-ups) that transform soft connective tissues, including aponeuroses, fascia, ligaments, tendons and skeletal muscles, into an armament like encasement of bone. Ribbons, sheets and plates of heterotopic bone replace skeletal muscles and connective tissues through a process of endochondral ossification that leads to permanent immobility. Minor trauma such as intramuscular immunizations, mandibular blocks for dental work, muscle fatigue and blunt muscle trauma from bumps, bruises, falls or influenza Ã¢â¬â like illness can trigger painful new flare-ups of FOP leading to progressive HO. Patient with atypical form of FOP have been described. Surgical attempts to remove heterotopic bone commonly lead to episodes of explosive and painful new bone growth. Classic FOP is caused by a recurrent activating mutation in the gene ACVR1/ALK2 encoding Activin A receptor type I , a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor. FOP is commonly misdiagnosed as aggressive juvenile fibromatosis, lymphedema or soft tissue sarcomas. If clinical suspicion of FOP early in life on the basis of malformed great toes can lead to early clinical diagnosis and the avoidance of harmful diagnostic and treatment procedures to the patient; however plain x-rays can substantiate the presence of HO. Experts believe that 80% or more of the cases are misdiagnose and its prevalence may be much higher than known causing a great deal of pain and suffering for FOP patients and their families. At present, there is no cure for FOP. A high-dose corticosteroids treatment is indicated as first-line treatment within the first 24 hours of a flare-up. Most patients with FOP are required lifelong assistance in performing activities of daily living to prevent falls and avoid high-risk circumstances. For patients all the restriction of activity compromises their independence and result unacceptable on most cases, but due to the progressive immobility and severe weight loss may result following ankylosing of the jaw, as well as pneumonia and right-sided heart failure from thoracic insufficiency syndrome FOP patients need assistance. The lifespan of a patient with FOP is approximately 40 years of age and commonly die of complications of thoracic insufficiency syndrome. Ã¢â¬Å"Cause and cureÃ¢â¬ have always been the guiding principles in FOP research, while the mutation that causes classic FOP has been discovered, much work still remains to discover the exact genetic, cellular and molecular mechanism by which this mutation leads to the complex disease phenotype of skeletal malformations and use that knowledge to develop effective treatments and eventually a cure. The FOP gene discovery gives people with FOP great hope for the future. UCSF Benioff ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Hospital http://www. ucsfbenioffchildrens. org/conditions/fibrodysplasia_ossificans_progressiva/ International Fibrodysplacia Ossificans Progresiva Association http://www. ifopa. org/what-is-fop/history-of-fop. html National Center for Biotechnology Information http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2424023/